Saturday, October 23, 2004

Muslim Scientist

Muslim Scientist
Western Scientist and Scholars Words on Science

*The universe is ruled by mind and whether it be the mind of a mathematician or of an artist or of a poet or all of them.It is the one reality which gives meaning to existence, enriches our daily task, ecouraged our hope and energizes us with faith wherever knowledge fails.[ Einstein ] *He who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe is as good dead and his eyes are closed. [ Einstein ]

*When we stand and gaze upon the scene before us we grow to feel a part of it. Something in the communicates with something in us. Communion brings us joy and the joy brings us exaltation.[ Western Scholar]

*Can anyone seriously suggest that this directing and regulating power eleminated is change encounter of atoms? can the stream rise higher than its fountain?[ Professor William Macberamid]

*The more we know the more we find there is to know, the farther we go, the greater is our joy. The deeper we penetrate the higher is our exaltation. So on and on we shall go laymen and scientists alike, we shall never stop, because the lure is too great.[ Western Scholar]

*All things by immortal power near and far hiddenly to each other linked are, that thou cannot stir a flower without the trembling of a star.[ Francis Thompson ]

Muslim Scientist- Name / History


Jabir Ibn Haiyan, the alchemist Geber of the Middle Ages, is generally known as the father of chemistry. Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan, sometimes called al-Harrani and al-Sufi, was the son of the druggist ( Attar ). The precise date of his birth is the subject of some discussion, but it is established that he practised medicine and alchemy in Kufa around 776 C.E. In his early days, he practised medicine and was under the patronage of the Barmaki Vizir during the Abbssid Caliphate of Haroon al-Rashid. He shared some of the effects of the downfall of the Barmakis and was placed under house arrest in Kufa, where he died in 803 C.E. Jabir's major contribution was in the field of chemistry. He introduced experimental investigation into alchemy, which rapidly changed its character into modern chemistry. On the ruins of his well-known laboratory remained after centuries, but his fame rests on over 100 monumental treatises, of which 22 relate to chemistry and alchemy. His contribution of fundamental importance to chemistry includes perfection of scientific techniques such as crystalization, distillation, calcination, sublimation and evaporation and development of several instruments for the same. The fact of early development of chemistry as a distinct branch of science by the Arabs, instead of the earlier vague ideas, is well-established and the very name chemistry is derived from the Arabic word al-Kimya , which was studied and developed extensively by the Muslim scientists.


Abu Abdullah Mohammad Ibn Musa al-Khawarizmi was born at Khawarizm (Kheva), south of Aral sea. Very little is known about his early life, except for the fact that his parents had migrated to a place south of Baghdad. The exact dates of his birth and death are also not known, but it is established that he flourished under Al- Mamun at Baghdad through 813-833 and probably died around 840 C.E. Khawarizmi was a mathematician, astronomer and geographer. He was perhaps one of the greatest mathematicians who ever lived, as, in fact, he was the founder of several branches and basic concepts of mathematics. In the words of Phillip Hitti, he influenced mathematical thought to a greater extent than any other medieval writer. His work on algebra was outstanding, as he not only initiated the subject in a systematic form but he also developed it to the extent of giving analytical solutions of linear and quadratic equations, which established him as the founder of Algebra. The very name Algebra has been derived from his famous book Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah . His arithmetic synthesised Greek and Hindu knowledge and also contained his own contribution of fundamental importance to mathematics and science. Thus, he explained the use of zero, a numeral of fundamental importance developed by the Arabs. Similarly, he developed the decimal system so that the overall system of numerals, 'algorithm' or 'algorizm' is named after him. In addition to introducting the Indian system of numerals (now generally known as Arabic numerals), he developed at length several arithmetical procedures, including operations on fractions. It was through his work that the system of numerals was first introduced to Arabs and later to Europe, through its translations in European languages. He developed in detail trigonometric tables containing the sine functions, which were probably extrapolated to tangent functions by Maslama. He also perfected the geometric representation of conic sections and developed the calculus of two errors, which practically led him to the concept of differentiation. He is also reported to have collaborated in the degree measurements ordered by Mamun al-Rashid were aimed at measuring of volume and circumference of the earth. The development of astronomical tables by him was a significant contribution to the science of astronomy, on which he also wrote a book. The contribution of Khawarizmi to geography is also outstanding, in that not only did he revise Ptolemy's views on geography, but also corrected them in detail as well as his map of the world. His other contributions include original work related to clocks, sundials and astrolabes.

To Read More About Muslim Scientists:

Muslim Scientist page 2
Muslim Scientist page 3
Muslim Scientist page 4
Muslim Scientist page 5
Muslim Scientist page 6


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